Prolapse is a condition where part of the intestine or oviduct protrudes from the bird's cloaca (vent area.)
There are a number of potential causes for this condition and a number of possible solutions depending on the cause. Egg binding can be a cause, and remember egg binding is not simply the physical presence of an egg, it is the deficiency of calcium in the blood and tissues. Therefore it may occur any time before, during or immediately after egg laying. Even when adequate Calcium is available, it may still occur because the amount of calcium required for egg shell production is greater than the amount of Calcium a bird can eat in a 24hr period.
Because egg binding is really hypocalcaemia (low blood calcium) all muscles of the body become weak and contract poorly. The uterus cannot contract enough to deliver the egg, the cloacal sphincter muscles may be too weak to hold close and the general body muscles may not be burning energy to keep the bird warm - hence they go into shock. Therefore any bird with a cloacal prolapse should be kept warm and given calcium in some form to hopefully increase cloacal muscle tone.
Cloacal prolapse is also contributed to by uterine or cloacal infection that makes the area irritated and causes straining, resulting in expulsion of the cloaca. Therefore it is standard to give these birds antibiotics in case of infection. If a prolapse is exposed to the air for any length of time, infection is almost certain to develop, and with time the tissue dries out which causes further irritation and more straining -end result bigger prolapse.
In many cases, the prolapse will not resolve and treatment becomes Veterinary in nature with surgery the only option. A purse string suture may be placed around the vent under general anesthesia to keep things inside. But this also often fails. If the bird is a pet, the best option is desexing to remove the swollen uterus and if necessary a procedure called cloacapexy to stitch the cloaca back inside the body. These procedures are quite successful.
And no, I am not that smart.. I copied and pasted.